Marine and Coastal Ecosystem of Pakistan – Climatic Biome

biodiversity rich biome of Pakistan

INTRODUCTION

Marine Biome: It is defined as an environment that is distinguished by the availability of saltwater. The marine biome is considered the largest biome on the Earth and it is usually based in oceans present anywhere on the Earth.

Coast Biome: It is defined as a varied ecosystem or it is a blend of various ecosystems that is present along the coast.

Characteristics of Marine and Coastal Biome: This biome has characteristic features such as the presence of nutrients, food, and availability of sunlight. Marine and coastal biome is further described by local topography, climate such as water temperature, salinity, and depth. Any changes in the mentioned terms might also induce changes in the biodiversity that inhabits this biome.

MARINE AND COASTAL BIOME OF PAKISTAN

Marine and coastal biome include mangrove forest, salt marshes, estuaries, freshwater, brackish, and saline lagoons, dune systems, salt or mudflats, rocky coasts, barrier islands, meadows, seagrass beds, coral reefs, etc.

Location of Marine and Coastal Biome of Pakistan: It is present in Baluchistan and Sindh Provinces of Pakistan.

  • Sindh: Tarparker, Lower Sindh, Central Hyderabad, and Western Karachi.
  • Balochistan: Makran Coast and Lasbela, and Gawadar.

The climate of Marine and Coastal Biome of Pakistan: The marine and coastal biome of Pakistan is characterized by the tropical climate. This biome experiences southwest and northeast monsoon seasons. The coastlines receive sea breeze. The highest temperature ranges 45-47 °C during summers and the lowest temperature is 5 °C. The precipitation is recorded less than 300mm. The overall climate is often described as semi-arid tropical.

BIODIVERSITY OF MARINE AND COASTAL BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The marine and coastal biome provides habitats to a variety of species including living organisms such as microscopic cyanobacteria to numerous animals and plant species.

FLORA: PLANTS/VEGETATION

Serial No. Plants Common Name Scientific Name
1. Lai Tamarix dioica
2. Ber Ziziphus nummularia
3. Kumbat Acacia senegal
4. Neem Azadirachtaindica
5. Rohida Tecomella undulata
6. Grey Mangroves Avicennia marina
7. Mangrove Apple Sonneratia acida
8. Spurred Mangroves Ceriops tagal
9. Babul Acacia nilotica
10. Khabbar Salvadora persica

 

FAUNA: ANIMALS

Serial No. Animals Common Name Scientific Name
1. Giant Mud Crab Scylla serrata
2. Flathead Lobster henus orientalis
3. the Great Indian Bustard Ardeotis nigriceps
4. Green Sea Turtles Chelonia mydas
5. Saw-scaled viper Echis carinatus
6. Chinkara Gazella bennettii
7. Sarus Crane Grus antigone
8. Asiatic wild ass Equus hemionus khur
9. Gray wolf Canis lupus
10. Finless Porpoise Neophocaena phocaenoides

 

THREATS TO MARINE AND COASTAL BIOME OF PAKISTAN

Threats to the marine and coastal biome of Pakistan include both natural and anthropogenic activities. Natural threats are seasonal variations in dissolved oxygen in the upper water layer that surges from the deeper water layer. Others are salinity, maximum/high temperature, wave actions, etc.

Anthropogenic threats are human-induced climate change, marine pollution, overexploitation of natural resources, the introduction of invasive species, land-use changes such as expanding agricultural lands, etc.

IMPORTANCE OF MARINE AND COASTAL BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The Arabian Sea is considered the special and unique feature of the marine and coastal biome of Pakistan. It holds great economic importance for Pakistan. The country has Sindu Sagar in the south connected to the Arabian Sea. It is among the most unique seas in the world because it is widely known as a large marine ecosystem with the high productive zone.

Also, check out Coral Reef Destruction – Causes, Effects, and Solutions

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