Freshwater Wetland Ecosystem of Pakistan – Climatic Biome

freshwater wetlands hold biodiversity


Freshwater Wetland Biome: It is defined as a diverse variety of areas where the wet soil is covered with standing water. Wetlands are not Estuaries because wetlands don’t have openings to oceans. The rainwater filling up a large shallow hole in the ground is often considered a wetland biome.

Characteristics of Freshwater Wetland Biome: A freshwater wetland biome is a region that holds water below 1% salt concentration and diverse species of animals and plants.


Freshwater wetland biome is found everywhere on the Earth that includes streams, ponds, rivers, lakes, rice paddies, etc.

Location of Freshwater Wetland Biome of Pakistan: It is present nearly in every province of Pakistan including Punjab, Sindh, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Baluchistan, Azad Jammu Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.

The major wetland complexes in Pakistan are

  • North Western Alpine wetland complex – Northern Areas
  • Salt Range Wetland Complex – Punjab
  • Central Indus Plain Wetland Complex – Punjab, Sindh,
  • Makran Coast Wetland complex – Baluchistan
  • Jiwani Wetland Complex – Baluchistan
  • Deh Akro-II Desert Wetland Complex – Sindh

The climate of Freshwater Wetland Biome of Pakistan: The climate of the freshwater wetland biome of Pakistan is characterized by a dry sub-tropical climate. Summers are hot and winters are cool. The recorded precipitation ranges from 300 to 800mm. The highest temperature ranges 36-41 °C during summers and the lowest temperature is 0.5-4 °C.


The freshwater wetland biome of Pakistan supports an incredible range of biodiversity. There are wildlife sanctuaries, protected and unprotected wetland areas.


Serial No. Plants Common Name Scientific Name
1. Waterthyme Hydrilla verticillata
2. Salt Ceder Tamarix
3. Bulrush Typha
4. Sago Pondweed Potamogeton pectinatus
5. Olive Tree Olea ferruginea
6. Bushy Evergreen Tree Salvadoraoleoides
7. Eel Grass Vallisneria spiralis
8. Malabar Nut Adhatoda vasica
9. Phulai Acacia modesta
10. Scutch Grass Cynodon dactylon



Serial No. Animals Common Name Scientific Name
1. Mugger Crocodile Crocodylus palustris
2. Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus
3. Dalmatian pelican Pelecanus crispus
4. Punjab Urial Ovis vignei punjabiensis
5. Indus River Dolphin Plantanista minor
6. Wild Boar Sus scrofa cristatus
7. Smooth-coated otter Lutra perspicillata
8. Golden Jackal Canis aureus
9. Indian Bull Frog Rana tigrina
10. Indian Hog Deer Axis porcinus


The Freshwater Wetland biome of Pakistan hosts a diverse variety of migratory birds.


Serial No. Birds Common Name Scientific Name
1. Grey Heron Ardea cinerea
2. Little Egret Egretta garzetta
3. White-Throated Kingfisher Halcyon smyrnensis
4. Pied Harrier Circus melanoleucos
5. Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga
6. Marbled duck Marmaronetta angustirostris
7. Common Teal Anas crecca
8. White-Breasted Waterhen Amaurornis phoenicurus
9. Common White-Eye Aythya nyroca
10. Greylag Goose Anser anser



Threats to the freshwater wetland biome of Pakistan include anthropogenic activities mainly agriculture activities such as runoff from agricultural sites, application of fertilizers, oil spill, overfishing, using wetlands as waste dumping sites, coral mining, urbanization, water pollution, overgrazing, deforestation, global warming, climate changes, mining, construction, the introduction of invasive species, etc.

The desert wetland complex of Pakistan is a unique wetland ecosystem, provides habitat to endangered wildlife species. It is facing threats due to climate change.


The freshwater wetland biome of Pakistan is the most productive ecosystem in the country and due to the Ramsar convention, some wetland sites are recognized internationally. This biome is extremely important for the economy of Pakistan. It provides habitat to wildlife, migratory birds, etc.

Also, check out Marine and Coastal Biome – Climatic Biome of Pakistan

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1 Comment

  1. Hello,
    you have write very athentic and short history of wetlands and it,s biome. it is very helpful to understand,

    Good / Nice

    i,m Muhammad Adnan (Biodiversity Specialist) Officer at Punjab Wildlife Deptt.
    Ex. Nature Conservationist Dubai Safari

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