Coral Reef Ecosystem of Pakistan- Climatic Biome

coral reef are present in Pakistan along Baluchistan coast

INTRODUCTION

Coral Reef Biome: It is considered among marine biomes. It is a small biome that holds 25% of marine biodiversity. The coral reefs are usually found in the Persian Gulf, the Red Sea, the Caribbean Sea, the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, and near the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn.

Characteristics of Coral Reef Biome: The coral reef biome of Pakistan is characterized by shallow water. The reef-building corals live in symbiosis with zooxanthellae. The coral reefs get nutrients from the algae and provide protection and compounds to zooxanthellae.

CORAL REEF BIOME OF PAKISTAN

Location of Coral reef Biome of Pakistan: It is present along with coastal areas of Pakistan. The known sites for the coral reef biome of Pakistan include Jiwani, Ormara (Rodrigues Shoals), Gawadar, Astola Island, and Churna Island.

Coral species that make up the coral biome of Pakistan are listed below.

Serial No. Islands of Pakistan Coral Species
1. Astola Island ·         Soft Coral: Paraplexaura sp., Bebryce sp., etc

·         Hard Corals: Favites complanata, Porites monticulosa, Porites harrisoni, Montipora molli, etc

2. Chunra Island ·         Goniopora columna

·         Psammocora superficialis

·         Coscinaraea monile

·         Dendrophyllia robusta

·         Goniopora albiconus

3. Kaio Island ·         Goniopora albiconus

·         Porites harrisoni

 

Climate of Coral reef Biome of Pakistan: The coral reef biome of Pakistan is characterized by warm ocean temperature. The summer temperature of the coral reef biome ranges from 20-30 ◦C while in winters the optimum temperature ranges from 13-23◦C.

BIODIVERSITY OF CORAL REEF BIOME OF PAKISTAN

A diverse variety of plants inhabits coral reefs that include seagrasses, seaweeds, zooxanthellae, etc. Animals include organisms that inhabit coral reefs, support the coral reef ecosystem, etc.

FLORA: PLANTS/VEGETATION

Serial No. Plants Common Name Scientific Name
1. Gulfweed Sargassum
2. Brown Seaweed Sargassum tenerrimum
3. Zooxanthellae Symbiodinium
4. Anemone Anemonastrum
5. Red Algae (Karachi Coast) Laurencia karachiana
6. Sea lettuce Ulva lactuca
7. Red Algae Hypnea musciformis
8. Seaweed Enteromorpha
9. Thalloid Brown Alga Stypopodium shameelii
10. Seaweed Dictyota implexa

 

FAUNA: ANIMALS

Serial No. Animal Common Name Scientific Name
1. Green Turtle Chelonia mydas
2. Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbracata
3. Sandbird Octopus Octopus’ cyanea
4. Sea Anemone Actiniaria
5. Sea Urchins Echinoidea
6. Ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus
7. Bridled Seabream Acanthopagrus catenula
8. Arabian carpet shark Chiloscyllium arabicum
9. Five-lined snapper Lutjanus quinquelineatus
10. Bowmouth guitarfish Rhina ancylostoma

 

THREATS TO CORAL REEF BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The rainforest of the marine ecosystem is widely recognized as coral reefs. The coral reef biome has a rich biodiversity. However, the coral reefs are facing environmental problems.

Threats to the coral reef biome of Pakistan include human activities mainly marine pollution, oil spills overfishing, industrial effluent discharge, agricultural runoff, coastal area development, water pollution, rising sea surface temperature, sedimentation, etc.

Other factors that are threatening the survival of coral reefs include global warming, climate change, and coral mining.

IMPORTANCE OF CORAL REEF BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The coral reef biome of Pakistan is extremely important because it indicates the water quality as well people use it for their livelihood. It supports a huge variety of species, some of which are newly discovered along the Karachi coast.

SPECIAL FEATURE OF CORAL REEF BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The coral reefs found in Pakistan prefer hard substrate and rarely adapted to soft beds. The variety of hard substrates includes high ridges, mid-slope ridges, local ridges, mesas, upland drainage, mid-slope drainage, and canyons.

Also, check out UAE-Israel Oil Pipeline Deal Can Destroy Red Sea Coral Reefs

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