Geography of Pakistan
Pakistan is located in South East Asia that covers 880,000 square kilometers of land area. The neighboring countries include China, India, Iran, and Afghanistan. The coastal areas of Pakistan are linked with the Arabian Sea. According to topography, the country has alpine regions, permafrost, temperate, tropical, and subtropical ecosystems.
Climate of Pakistan
The country has a climatic zone that varies from region to region. The highlands areas are cold in winters and cooler in summer. The plain areas are hot in summer and cooler in winters. Due to varying climatic conditions, Pakistan experiences fewer rainfalls in plain areas.
The reported catastrophic events in Pakistan include earthquakes, frequent floods, and heavy rainfall. The environmental problems in Pakistan are desertification, industrial sewerage, fewer water reserves, contaminated water sources, eroded soils, and deforestation.
Impacts of Climate Change
The notable changes in weather conditions of Pakistan include variations in monsoon pattern, retreating glaciers of Himalaya, decreased Indus river flow levels, fewer water reservoirs and along, drought conditions, and frequent floods.
The impacts on the ecosystem include increasing water, soil, and air pollution, habitat loss, water scarcity, food shortage, mangrove destruction, decreased livestock production, etc.
In reference to the Initial National Communication of Pakistan to UNFCCC, the results by assessment model of greenhouse gas and climate change are anticipated to be potentially damaging to the country. Climate change will have negative impacts on the social, economical, and public sectors. The agricultural sector will experience less productivity due to temperature imbalance, water scarcity, and soil conditions.
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Mitigatory Strategies and Measures
The very first step of mitigation involves recognition of vulnerability to climate change. Later effective adaptation measures are formulated and implemented. Pakistan lacks implementation strategies and is not getting any international assistance in dealing with climatic changes. Pakistan has become part of many international agreements and before that Environmental Action Plan by EPA was developed and implemented countrywide. For the future, the government is taking steps to develop adaptation strategies at the regional level that will consider every socio-economic and environmental sector.
The current government has started green initiatives at the national level in order to combat climatic changes.
According to the government spokesperson, the initiative like tree plantation, switching to electric transportation, utilizing renewable energy sources and urban forestry are mitigatory measure taken by the Country to tackle impacts of the climate change. The greenhouse gases emission will be reduced by electric transportation.
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There is conflict among environmentalists, activists, and Governmental officials in Pakistan. Some people are not appreciating governmental initiatives due to the absence of assessment strategies concerning the plantation movement. Some suggested the Government needs alternative renewable energy sources. Some didn’t approve river urban development that would bring more environmental issues.
The Government of Pakistan is doing its best to tackle climate change and its impacts. The governmental officials say the initiatives of clean green Pakistan will soon show good results.
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– MS Environmental Science
– Content Writer
Researcher, Nature Lover, and Environmentalist