Urbanization – Causes, Effects, and Solutions

urbanization causes urban heat island


Urbanization: It is defined as urban sprawl due to the increasing population. It is also described as turning a land space into a metropolitan area.

Urbanization refers to the increasing population in urban areas as more people are shifting to urban societies. It could be elaborated as small areas having a large number of people.

Check out: Urban Heat Islands – Causes, Effects, and Solutions


The causes of urbanization are listed below.

1. Over-Population: The increasing population at an alarming rate is the first and foremost important cause of urbanization.

2. Migrations to Urban Cities: Due to the increasing population, people are migrating to urban cities. Also, people migrate to urban cities due to modern living standards.

3. Industrialization: Industrialization is attracting people living in urban areas. The spread of industries due to overpopulation is also linked with urban sprawl.

4. Employment Opportunities: Big cities provide job opportunities with various benefits. Many people tend to relocate due to unemployment.

5. Social and Health Services: Urban cities have social and health services readily available as compared to rural areas.

You might also like: How Can We Make Our Cities Sustainable (An Eco-City)?


Urbanization has negative effects that are mentioned below.

1. Urban Heat Island: It happens due to anthropogenic activities. The urban areas are warmer than surrounding rural areas. Land-use changes account for urban heat islands.

2. Environmental Pollution: Urbanization causes environmental pollution i.e. air pollution due to burning fossil fuel in vehicles, industries, power plants, etc. Industrial effluents degrade water quality.

3. Land Pollution: Urbanization is also responsible for land pollution and disease outbreaks due to congested areas and improper waste management techniques.

4. Unemployment and Crimes: Urban cities have higher rates of crimes. Unemployment is prevailing in urban cities due to the increasing population and stress on natural resources.

5. Less Greenery: Overpopulation leads to increased housing settlement and urban housing schemes that cause deforestation. There is less greenery in urban areas.

Also read this related article: What Is Light Pollution? – Sources, Effects and Solutions


1. Avoid Unplanned Urbanization: Unplanned urbanization should be prevented that causes deforestation.

2. Eco-friendly cities: Making cities eco-friendly can reduce the impacts of urbanization. If you wish to get further information about it read: Blueprint of an Eco-city – How To Create Sustainable Cities?

3. Electric Transportation: Electric transportation should be used in order to reduce air pollution caused by fossil fuel combustion.

4. Creating Job Opportunities in Rural Areas: The government should start projects nearby rural areas that provide jobs to natives.

5. Health Service Provision: Health facilities should be made available in rural areas so people don’t travel to urban areas.

6. Alternative Sources of Energy: Renewable alternative energy sources should be used to avoid increasing environmental pollution. For more info: What Are Renewable Energy Sources? – Types of Green Energy


Urbanization or urban sprawl due to increasing population is negatively impacting the environment of the Earth. It is responsible for increasing air, water, and, land pollution. Climate change is also affecting the residents. More people are moving towards urban areas due to social, educational, and medical facilities available in the bigger cities. Urban cities should be made sustainable and eco-friendly.

Also check out: Urbanization affects Microclimate of Abbottabad Pakistan

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