Tropical Thorn Forest Ecosystem of Pakistan – Climatic Biome

xerophytic species dominate the forest land

INTRODUCTION

Tropical Thorn Forest: This forest primarily consists of plant species that are open, low and xerophytic. The vegetation of tropical thorn forests doesn’t include grasses.

Tropical Thorn Forest Ecosystem: This forest ecosystem is predominated by thorny leguminous plant species. The arid regions receive less rainfall and this ecosystem can survive in water-scarce regions.

Characteristics of Tropical Thorn Forest: The roots of such plant species search deep in the ground for water and leaves are bushy and thorny. These plants have thick leaves and vegetation is scattered.

TROPICAL THORN FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

Tropical thorn forests in Pakistan were covering huge areas from Himalayan foothills to southwestern Punjab unless urban development and irrigation land made it shrink.

Location of Tropical Thorn Forest Ecosystem of Pakistan: It is located in semi-arid and arid regions that include the deserts of Pakistan. The forest is covering the whole Indus plain excluding few areas such as Gujrat, Sialkot, and Jehlum.

The forest is present along thal, thar and cholistan deserts.

  • Cholistan – Bhawalnagar
  • Nara Desert – Khanpur
  • Tharparkur – Mirpurkhas
  • Thal – Mianwali, Sarghoda, Dera Gazi khan
  • Kharan Desert – along Afghan border

Climate of Tropical Thorn Forest Ecosystem of Pakistan: The climate of tropical thorn forests is characterized by arid and semi-arid conditions. The recorded rainfall in the arid region is 200mm while in the semi-arid it is 250-750mm. The temperature ranges from 23 to 50°C.

BIODIVERSITY OF TROPICAL THORN FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

There is a diverse variety of animals and plants inhabiting the tropical thorn forest ecosystem of Pakistan. The arid climatic region provides habitats for reptiles, animals, and scavengers. Vegetation is mainly comprised of xerophytic species of plants.

FLORA: PLANTS/VEGETATION

Serial No. Plants Common Name Scientific Name
1. Reonja Acacia leucophlea
2. Seepweeds Suaeda
3. Saltwort Salsola
4. Indian Jujube Zizyphus mauratina
5. Farash Tamarix articulate
6. Phulai Acacia modesta
7. Rohida Tecoma undulata
8. Kair Capparis decidua
9. Khejri/Jhand Prosopis cineraria
10. Vann Salvadora oleoides

 

FAUNA: ANIMALS

Serial No. Animal Common Name Scientific Name
1. Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata
2. Goitered Gazelle Gazella subgutterosa
3. Chinkara Gazella bennettii
4. Balochistan Gerbil Gerbillus nanus
5. Saw Scaled Viper Echis carinatus sochureki
6. Indian Pangolin Manis crassicaudata
7. Caracal Desert Lynx Felis caracal
8. Mouse-Tailed Bat Rhinopoma microphyllum
9. Golden Jackal Asiatic jackal
10. Long-Eared Hedgehog Hemiechinus collaris

 

THREATS TO TROPICAL THORN FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

Human activities are threatening the tropical thorn forest ecosystem in Pakistan. Deforestation is the first and foremost important threat to this forest ecosystem. This forest has been subjected to cutting due to clearing land for vegetation, agricultural practices, and urbanization. Other threats include logging, surface runoff, and overgrazing. Droughts and salinity are common issues.

IMPORTANCE OF TROPICAL THORN FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

Tropical thorn forests are important for native residents. The wood provides fodder to animals. It is used for construction. This forest ecosystem provides watershed protection. It includes desert regions that have great economic importance due to recreational and sports activities.

Also, check out Coniferous (Taiga or Boreal) Forest of Pakistan – Climatic Biome

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2 Comments

  1. You must have to mention conservation status of flora species,so it will be more attractive and easy for everyone.

    1. Thank you for the suggestion Ali, we will definitely keep this in mind when writing future articles and will also try to update our already published articles.
      Kind Regards,
      Admin Envpk.com

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