Forestry: it is the field of science that includes a series of processes such as producing, protecting, conserving, utilizing, and managing woodlands and forests. It also includes repairing the forests for sustainable functions of the environment and ecosystems. In forestry, trees are grown on a large scale preserving the land only for the forest and its inhabitants. There are also resources present in the forest that help humans in sustaining life on the Earth.
Deforestation: Deforestation is a process of clearing forest cover or cutting trees on such a level that affects the forest cover area and forestry in general.
Afforestation: Afforestation or forestation is the plantation of trees to increase forest cover and this process is introduced in plain areas or in areas where there is the absence of greenery.
Manmade forest: Manmade forests include plantation of trees along the canals, rivers, water resources, recreational parks, etc. it is included in the afforestation process.
Currently, 30 % of the world is covered by forest land. Due to anthropogenic activities, the forest cover is declining the reason varies according to humans’ needs.
Reasons of Deforestation
Depending on the location of the country on the Earth, some areas suffer fire incidents that result in tree loss on a huge level. This is the natural incident that causes deforestation. Human activities are very much responsible for deforestation.
The anthropogenic activities are cutting trees for livelihood, clearing forest cover for agricultural purposes, smuggling of timber, increased urbanization and new housing schemes, mining, etc.
Effects of Deforestation on the Environment
Deforestation has adverse impacts on the environment and ecosystems. It causes habitat and biodiversity loss, increased environmental pollution, global warming, soil erosion, less productive soil and vegetation, climate change, etc.
Deforestation in Pakistan
Pakistan has very less land area covered by forest. According to the geography of Pakistan, the semi-arid and arid regions prevent tree growth on large scale. The changes in precipitation patterns also affect the growth of trees. Pakistan has a land area of 87.98 million hectares while the forest area covers 4.57 million hectares. Any country should have at least 25-33% area under forest cover. Deforestation in Pakistan is increasing up to 0.5 % annually.
Recent Afforestaion Drives by the Government of Pakistan
It is well known that climate change is happening in Pakistan. Trees absorb carbon dioxide from the air that causes global warming. Although Pakistan is not a major contributor to greenhouse gases emission but the effects of climate change on Pakistan are likely to be adverse at every level.
The government of Pakistan has started clean green initiatives that would increase the forest area of Pakistan. The forest restoration drives will help Pakistan tackle the severe impacts of climate change. Afforestation initiatives are plantforPak/billion tree tsunami project, Miyawaki urban forest, etc,
The current land area under forest cover in Pakistan has increased slightly up to 1%. The country is trying to increase overall forest cover. The One billion tree project in the region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa has increased forest cover from 20.3 to 26.3 %.
Afforestation drives by the government of Pakistan are receiving appreciation from all around the world. There are many benefits associated with forestation initiatives. It will gradually increase the forest cover as well as create job opportunities for youth.
It is recommended that along with afforestation drives, the Government should adopt renewable energy sources that would also lessen the burden on natural reserves for energy production. Deforestation should be prohibited and strict actions should be taken against violators.
Also, check out Pakistan To Host World Environment Day 2021
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– MS Environmental Science
– Content Writer
Researcher, Nature Lover, and Environmentalist