Littoral and Swamp Forest Ecosystem of Pakistan – Climatic Biome

mangrove forest of Pakistan

INTRODUCTION

Littoral Forest: It is known as mangrove forest or tidal forest. This forest grows along marshy coasts and delta regions.

Swamp Forest: This forest grows along the intertidal coastline and submerged with seawater. This forest is common near tropical zone. Another name is flooded forest.

Littoral and Swamp Forest Ecosystem: This forest ecosystem is also known as wetland forests because this ecosystem is found near freshwater lakes.

Characteristics of Littoral and Swamp Forest Ecosystem: The forest soil is characterized by minerals and poor drainage. The adequate supply of water keeps the soil waterlogged.

LITTORAL AND SWAMP FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

The littoral and swamp forest ecosystem is characterized by low-height gregarious forests.

Location of Littoral and Swamp Forest Ecosystem of Pakistan: This forest ecosystem is present along the Arabian Sea nearby Baluchistan and Sindh. The location of this forest ecosystem includes Karachi coasts, Pasni., Coast of Gawadar, Mekran, Ket bunder, Seer creek, Korngi, and Rann of Kutch – Indus River Delta Arabian Sea.

Climate of Littoral and Swamp Forest Ecosystem of Pakistan: The climate of the littoral and swamp forest ecosystem of Pakistan is characterized by arid weather conditions. It falls in a dry tropical and subtropical zone. The recorded precipitation is 200-222mm through the monsoon season. The temperature ranges from 10 to 41°C. Summers are hot and winters are cool.

BIODIVERSITY OF LITTORAL AND SWAMP FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

Huge biodiversity is found in the littoral and swamp forest ecosystem of Pakistan. Flora of this ecosystem consists of shrubs, mangrove species, and grasses. Vegetation is characterized by mangrove species. Fauna includes aquatic and terrestrial animals.

FLORA: PLANTS/VEGETATION

Serial No. Plants Common Name Scientific Name
1. Oriental Mangrove Tree Bruguiera gymnorhiza
2. Mangrove Apple Sonneratia caseolaris
3. Black Mangrove Algeciras Corniculatum
4. Red Mangrove Rhizophora mucronata
5. Goosegrass Eleusine
6. Saltwort Salsola foetida
7. Indian Mangrove Ceriops tagal
8. Sandburs Cenchrus
9. True Mangrove Rhizophora apiculata
10. Grey Mangrove Avicennia marina

 

FAUNA: ANIMALS

Serial No. Animal Common Name Scientific Name
1. Annulated Sea Snake Hydrophiscyanocinctus
2. Toad Bufo andersoni
3. Flat Fish Pleuronectiformes
4. Mudskippers Periophthalmidae
5. Finless Black Porpoise Neophocaena hocaenoides
6. Plumbeous Dolphin Sousa plumbea
7. Fishing Cat Prionailurus viverrinus
8. Smooth-coated Indian Otter Lutrogale perspicillata
9. Hog Deer Axis porcinus
10. Lesser Bandicoot Rat Bandicota bengalensis

 

THREATS TO LITTORAL AND SWAMP FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

Main threats to the littoral and swamp forest ecosystem of Pakistan include anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, urbanization, water pollution, algal boom, overgrazing, industrial effluents discharge, agriculture runoff, and land pollution. Salinity is one of the major issues the mangrove forests are facing. The reduction in the freshwater flow towards this ecosystem is also a huge threat to the wetland ecosystem.

An initiative of urban housing scheme by PM of Pakistan received backlashes from environmentalists, analysts due to the destruction of mangrove forest present along Bundle Island in Karachi Pakistan.

IMPORTANCE OF LITTORAL AND SWAMP FOREST ECOSYSTEM OF PAKISTAN

This ecosystem helps in pollination and seed dispersal. It holds economic and environmental importance. This forest ecosystem helps clean water. These forests serve as wildlife sanctuaries. There is diverse genetic variation among species of plants. Also, this forest provides recreational facilities.

Also, check out Freshwater Ecosystem of Pakistan – Climatic Biome

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