Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystem of Pakistan – Climatic Biome

himalayan hindu kush regions have pastorals community.

INTRODUCTION

Grasslands: It is defined as open lands that are continuously covered with broadleaf herbs, little woody vegetation, sedges, and grasses. Taller and woody vegetation is absent.

Shrublands: It is defined as areas that are covered with dense but low height shrub vegetation like sedges, willow, dogwood, or tall grasses.

Grassland and Shrubland Biome: This biome consists of high-altitude grasses and shrubs. Grassland and shrubland biome is a combination of short nonwoody vegetation and tall grasses – woody vegetation. The environmental conditions vary deepening upon the region.

Characteristics of Grassland and Shrubland Biome: This biome is characterized by scattered vegetation including trees that are present along with water bodies. The climate is semi-arid and this biome is present between deserts and forest regions.

GRASSLANDS AND SHRUBLANDS BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The grassland and shrubland biome of Pakistan includes Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows.

Location of Grassland and Shrubland Biome of Pakistan:  This biome is present in lower Chitral, Waziristan, Kashmir, and Gilgit.

Climate of Grassland and Shrubland Biome of Pakistan: This biome is present at 3,300 and 3,600 altitudes. The recorded rainfall is up to 250mm. The region receives rainfall from the monsoon season. The climate of the grassland and shrubland biome of Pakistan is characterized as dry temperate with subtropic and sub-humid weather conditions. The growing season is short and cool. The precipitation is in the form of heavy snow at higher altitudes. The temperature ranges from 5 °C to 15 °C.

BIODIVERSITY OF GRASSLANDS AND SHRUBLANDS BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The scattered vegetation in the grasslands and shrublands biome of Pakistan holds a variety of animals and plants. Plants generally include herbaceous plants, flowering plants, and stunted growth vegetation.

FLORA: PLANTS/VEGETATION

Serial No. Plants Common Name Scientific Name
1. Twisted Wood Krummholz
2. Woody Plants Rhododendron
3. Sunflower Flowering Plants Doronicum
4. Pink-Tinged Buds Plants Mertensia
5. Windflower Plants Anemone
6. Baby’s Breath Gypsophila
7. Rockfoils Saxifraga
8. Bhutan Pine Pinus Wallichiana
9. Himalayan Birch Betula utilis
10. East Himalayan Fir Abies spectabilis

 

FAUNA: ANIMALS

Serial No. Animals Common Name Scientific Name
1. Alpine ibex Capra ibex
2. Bharal/ Blue Sheep Pseudois nayaur
3. Himalayan tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus
4. Markhor/ Screw Horn Sheep Capra falconeri
5. Himalayan marmot Marmota himalayana
6. Himalayan vulture Gyps himalayensis
7. Snow Leopard Panthera uncia
8. Himalayan wolf Canis lupus chanco
9. Himalayan snowcock Tetraogallus himalayensis
10. Snow partridge Lerwa lerwa

 

THREATS TO GRASSLANDS AND SHRUBLANDS BIOME OF PAKISTAN

The key threats are drilling of natural reserves, mining activities, environmental pollution including land degradation, clearing land for agricultural activities, the introduction of invasive plant species, overgrazing, climate change, bushfires, livestock production, etc.

These are low vegetative areas covered with grasses and shrubs and often subjected to degradation due to infrastructure development such as road construction. Urbanization and industrialization are also affecting the productivity of this biome.

IMPORTANCE OF GRASSLANDS AND SHRUBLANDS BIOME OF PAKISTAN

This biome is considered very productive at the national level. The Pastoralist community of Pakistan lives around the grassland and shrubland regions. They use these lands for feeding their animals and several products are prepared from animals’ wool. Animal husbandry holds economic importance for the region.

Also, check out Freshwater Wetland Biome – Climatic Biome of Pakistan

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